# YOLO algorithm

Last updated on：6 months ago

YOLO (you only look once) is a fast detection algorithm, which is widely used in autonomous driving car.

# YOLO

YOLO is an Image classification and localization algorithm. **What the YOLO algorithm does is it takes the midpoint of each of the objects and then assigns the object to the grid cell containing the midpoint**.

For each grid cell:

$$L (\hat{y}, y) = (\hat{y}_1 - y_1)^2 + (\hat{y}_2 - y_2)^2 + … + (\hat{y}_8 - y_8)^2, if y_1 = 1

(\hat{y}_1 - y_1)^2 if y_1 = 0$$

The object is only assigned to one of the grid cells. In practice maybe use $19\times 19 \times 8$ grids.

## Architectures

## Advantages

- output precise bounding boxes
- output much more precise coordinates that are not just dictated by the stripe size of your sliding windows classifier
- this is a convolutional implementation and you only need to implement this algorithm once
- runs very fast, it works even for real time object detection

## Specify the bounding boxes

## Intersection over union (IoU)

Evaluating object localization. IoU is a measure of the overlap between two bounding boxes. IoU means the ratio of bounding box to ground truth.

## Non-max suppression

$p_c \le 0.6$

While there are any remaining boxes:

Pick the box with the largest $p_c$ output that as a prediction (just for car detection)

Discard any remaining box with IoU $\ge 0.5$ with the box output in the previous step

Outputting the non-max supressed outputs

- For each grid call, get 2 predicted bounding boxes
- get rid of low probability predictions
- for each class (pedestrian, car, motorcycle) use non-max suppression to generate final predictions

It is used to remove those boxes which close to the prediction boxes.**Codes:**`def nms(self, dets, scores): """"Pure Python NMS baseline.""" x1 = dets[:, 0] #xmin y1 = dets[:, 1] #ymin x2 = dets[:, 2] #xmax y2 = dets[:, 3] #ymax areas = (x2 - x1) * (y2 - y1) order = scores.argsort()[::-1] keep = [] while order.size > 0: i = order[0] keep.append(i) xx1 = np.maximum(x1[i], x1[order[1:]]) yy1 = np.maximum(y1[i], y1[order[1:]]) xx2 = np.minimum(x2[i], x2[order[1:]]) yy2 = np.minimum(y2[i], y2[order[1:]]) w = np.maximum(1e-10, xx2 - xx1) h = np.maximum(1e-10, yy2 - yy1) inter = w * h # Cross Area / (bbox + particular area - Cross Area) ovr = inter / (areas[i] + areas[order[1:]] - inter) #reserve all the boundingbox whose ovr less than thresh inds = np.where(ovr <= self.nms_thresh)[0] order = order[inds + 1] return keep`

**Postprocess:**`def postprocess(self, bboxes, scores): """ bboxes: (HxW, 4), bsize = 1 scores: (HxW, num_classes), bsize = 1 """ cls_inds = np.argmax(scores, axis=1) scores = scores[(np.arange(scores.shape[0]), cls_inds)] # threshold keep = np.where(scores >= self.conf_thresh) bboxes = bboxes[keep] scores = scores[keep] cls_inds = cls_inds[keep] # NMS keep = np.zeros(len(bboxes), dtype=np.int) for i in range(self.num_classes): inds = np.where(cls_inds == i)[0] if len(inds) == 0: continue c_bboxes = bboxes[inds] c_scores = scores[inds] c_keep = self.nms(c_bboxes, c_scores) keep[inds[c_keep]] = 1 keep = np.where(keep > 0) bboxes = bboxes[keep] scores = scores[keep] cls_inds = cls_inds[keep] return bboxes, scores, cls_inds`

## Q&A

6.Suppose you run non-max suppression on the predicted boxes above. The parameters you use for non-max suppression are that boxes with probability $le$ 0.4 are discarded, and the IoU threshold for deciding if two boxes overlap is 0.5. How many boxes will remain after non-max suppression?

**Answer: 5**

**Because the boundary of tree 0.74 and tree 0.46 did not overlap.**

## Anchor boxes

Previously:

Each object in training image is assigned to grid cell that contains that object’s midpoint (and anchor box for the grid cell with highest IoU)

$$3 \times 3 \times 16 = 3 \times 3 \times 2 \times 8$$

## Region proposals (optional): R-CNN

Region - convolutional neural network

segmentation algorithm

N 2000 block, quite slow

R-CNN: propose regions. classify proposed regions one at a time. output label + bounding box

Fast R-CNN: Propose regions. use convolutional implementation of sliding windows to classify al the proposed regions

Faster R-CNN: use convolutional network to propose regions (slower that YOLO algorithm)

# Reference

[1] Redmon, J., Divvala, S., Girshick, R. and Farhadi, A., 2016. You only look once: Unified, real-time object detection. In *Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition* (pp. 779-788).

[2] Deeplearning.ai, Convolutional Neural Networks

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